STUDIES AVAILABLE OF GUGGULU
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Department of Biology, Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas 77004, USA.
Identification of active principles and their molecular targets from traditional medicine is an enormous opportunity for modern drug development. Gum resin from Commiphora wightii (syn C. mukul) has been used for centuries in Ayurveda to treat internal tumors, obesity, liver disorders, malignant sores and ulcers, urinary complaints, intestinal worms, leucoderma (vitiligo), sinuses, edema and sudden paralytic seizures. Guggulsterone has been identified as one of the major active components of this gum resin. This steroid has been shown to bind to the farnesoid X receptor and modulate expression of proteins with antiapoptotic (IAP1, XIAP, Bfl-1/A1, Bcl-2, cFLIP, survivin), cell survival, cell proliferation (cyclin D1, c-Myc), angiogenic, and metastatic (MMP-9, COX-2, VEGF) activities in tumor cells. Guggulsterone mediates gene expression through regulation of various transcription factors, including NF-kappaB, STAT-3 and C/EBPalpha, and various steroid receptors such as androgen receptor and glucocorticoid receptors. Modulation of gene expression by guggulsterone leads to inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, suppression of invasion and abrogation of angiogenesis. Evidence has been presented to suggest that guggulsterone can suppress tumor initiation, promotion and metastasis. This review describes the identification of molecular targets of guggulsterone, cellular responses to guggulsterone, and animal studies and clinical trials of guggulsterone in cancer and other diseases.
PMID: 19189646 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Medicine & Public Health-Section of Pharmacology, University of Verona, Italy.
The lack of a professional supervision may expose consumers of natural products to risks; pharmacists play an important role in giving information about these substances. A survey was designed to investigate the attitudes and knowledge of consumers and pharmacists toward the safety of natural products. Twenty-three pharmacies participated in the project. On the basis of a pre-structured 17-item questionnaire, face-to-face interviews were conducted with consumers buying a natural product over a 6-month period. A further 8 items had to be compiled by pharmacists about the purchased product. During the study period, 1420 interviews were carried out. The most frequently purchased products were echinacea, propolis, garlic, guggul, ginkgo, liquorice, ginseng, glucomannan, guarana, valerian, and passionflower; 71.8% of consumers reported to have been taking conventional medicines along with natural products. Some (3.9%) referred to adverse effects in the last year: allergic reactions after cartilage of shark, propolis and thyme; anxiety after hypericum; hypotension and tachycardia after a mix containing chamomile, valerian and melissa; pyrosis and stomach-ache after laxative-depurative herbs. Pharmacists referred to some adverse effects observed in the past in relation to the products bought by consumers involved in this study. Findings from this study demonstrate that in general consumers need information on herbal safety and pharmacists are more likely to answer correctly about the use of herbs rather than about cautions, adverse effects and interactions. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 19140118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Norway.
BACKGROUND: Guggul, herbal extract from resin of the Commiphora mukul tree, is widely used in Asia as a cholesterol-lowering agent based on Indian Ayurvedic medicine. Its popularity for this use is increasing in the US and Western Europe. Guggulsterones, the presumed bioactive compounds of guggul, may antagonise two nuclear hormone receptors involved in cholesterol metabolism, which is a possible explanation for hypolipidemic effects of these extracts. However, publications of efficacy data on the use of guggul extracts in Western populations are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of a guggul-based formulation (short: guggul) on blood lipids in healthy adults with moderately increased cholesterol. METHODS: Double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial in Norwegian general practice. 43 women and men, age 27-70, with moderately increased cholesterol, randomised to use 2160mg guggul (4 capsules) daily, or placebo for 12 weeks. OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean change in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio compared with baseline. Lipids were analysed at baseline, and at 6 and 12 weeks. In addition, unexpected events and adverse effects were recorded. RESULTS: Two dropouts, one withdrawal, and incomplete lab results for six persons left 34 participants to accomplish the trial (18-guggul, 16-placebo) with complete lab test data. After 12 weeks, mean levels of total cholesterol and HDL-C in the active group were significantly reduced compared with the placebo group. However, the mean levels of LDL-C, triglycerides, and total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio between the two groups did not change significantly. Ten guggul users (vs. four in the placebo group) reported side effects: mild gastrointestinal discomfort (n=7), possible thyroid problems (n=2), and generalized skin rash (n=1). The latter resulted in withdrawal from trial. CONCLUSIONS: Even if total cholesterol and HDL-C were significantly reduced, the clinical magnitude of this remains obscure. More and larger studies are needed to establish effects and safety of guggul-based formulations in the treatment for hypercholesterolemia.
PMID: 19114224 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19713, USA.
Guggulsterone (7) and cembranoids (8-12) from Commiphora mukul stem bark resin guggul were shown to be specific modulators of two independent sites that are also modulated by bile salts (1-6) to control cholesterol absorption and catabolism. Guggulsterone (7) antagonized the chenodeoxycholic acid (3)-activated nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which regulates cholesterol metabolism in the liver. The cembranoids did not show a noticeable effect on FXR, but lowered the cholate (1)-activated rate of human pancreatic IB phospholipase A2 (hPLA2), which controls gastrointestinal absorption of fat and cholesterol. Analysis of the data using a kinetic model has suggested an allosteric mechanism for the rate increase of hPLA2 by cholate and also for the rate-lowering effect by certain bile salts or cembranoids on the cholate-activated hPLA2 hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine vesicles. The allosteric inhibition of PLA2 by certain bile salts and cembranoids showed some structural specificity. Biophysical studies also showed specific interaction of the bile salts with the interface-bound cholate-activated PLA2. Since cholesterol homeostasis in mammals is regulated by FXR in the liver for metabolism and by PLA2 in the intestine for absorption, modulation of PLA2 and FXR by bile acids and selected guggul components suggests novel possibilities for hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic therapies.
PMID: 19102680 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Clore Laboratory for Life Sciences, University of Buckingham, MK18 1EG Buckingham, UK.
The ethyl acetate extract of the gum of the guggul tree, Commiphora mukul (guggulipid), is marketed for the treatment of dyslipidaemia and obesity. We have found that it protects Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice from diabetes and have investigated possible molecular mechanisms for its metabolic effects, in particular those due to a newly identified component, commipheric acid. Both guggulipid (EC(50)=0.82 mug/ml) and commipheric acid (EC(50)=0.26 mug/ml) activated human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with the receptor and a reporter gene construct. Similarly, both guggulipid (EC(50)=2.3 mug/ml) and commipheric acid (EC(50)=0.3 mug/ml) activated PPARgamma and both promoted the differentiation of 3T3 L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes. Guggulipid (EC(50)=0.66 mug/ml), but not commipheric acid, activated liver X receptor alpha (LXRalpha). E- and Z-guggulsterones, which are largely responsible for guggulipid's hypocholesterolaemic effect, had no effects in these assays. Guggulipid (20 g/kg diet) improved glucose tolerance in female Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice. Pure commipheric acid, given orally (960 mg/kg body weight, once daily), increased liver weight but did not affect body weight or glucose tolerance. However, the ethyl ester of commipheric acid (150 mg/kg, twice daily) lowered fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin, and plasma triglycerides without affecting food intake or body weight. These results raise the possibility that guggulipid has anti-diabetic activity due partly to commipheric acid's PPARalpha/gamma agonism, but the systemic bioavailability of orally dosed, pure commipheric acid appears poor. Another component may contribute to guggulipid's anti-diabetic and hypocholesterolaemic activity by stimulating LXRalpha.
PMID: 18926687 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
RTI International 3040 Cornwallis Road PO Box 12194 Research Triangle Park NC 27709 USA.
The concentrations of mercury in forty, commercially available dietary supplements, were determined using a new, inexpensive analysis technique. The method involves thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and detection of mercury by atomic absorption spectrometry with an analysis time of approximately six minutes per sample. The primary cost savings from this approach is that labor-intensive sample digestion is not required prior to analysis, further automating the analytical procedure. As a result, manufacturers and regulatory agencies concerned with monitoring lot-to-lot product quality may find this approach an attractive alternative to the more classical acid-decomposition, cold vapor atomic absorption methodology. Dietary supplement samples analyzed included astragalus, calcium, chromium picolinate, echinacea, ephedra, fish oil, ginger, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, goldenseal, guggul, senna, St John's wort, and yohimbe products. Quality control samples analyzed with the dietary supplements indicated a high level of method accuracy and precision. Ten replicate preparations of a standard reference material (NIST 1573a, tomato leaves) were analyzed, and the average mercury recovery was 109% (2.0% RSD). The method quantitation limit was 0.3 ng, which corresponded to 1.5 ng/g sample. The highest found mercury concentration (123 ng/g) was measured in a concentrated salmon oil sample. When taken as directed by an adult, this product would result in an approximate mercury ingestion of 7 mug per week.
PMID: 18924735 [PubMed - in process] PMCID: PMC2562971
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Chemical shift assignments of (1)H and (13)C of five cembrene compounds isolated from the hexane extract of guggul, the resin of Commiphora mukul, are reported. Using (1)H, (13)C, and 2D NMR methods their structures were determined as cembrene (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-2,4,7,11-tetraene), cembrene A (1-isopropenyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-4,8,12-triene), cembrenol (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-3,7,11-trienol), mukulol (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl- cyclotetradeca-3,7,11-trienol), and verticillol (4,8,12,15,15-pentamethyl-bicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-3,7-dien-12-ol). Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PMID: 18470886 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, USA. DengR@mail.uri.edu
Oleogum resin (known as guggul) from the guggul tree, Commiphora mukul, found in India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan, has been used to treat various diseases including hyper-cholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, rheumatism, and obesity over several thousands of years. Guggulsterone isolated from guggul has been identified as the bioactive constituent responsible for guggul's therapeutic effects. Since the first study demonstrating the therapeutic effects of guggul in an animal model in 1966, numerous preclinical and clinical trails have been carried out. Although differences in study design, methodological quality, statistical analysis, sample size, and subject population result in certain inconsistencies in the response to therapy, the cumulative data from in vitro, preclinical, and clinical studies largely support the therapeutic claims for guggul described in the ancient Ayurvedic text. However, future clinical studies with much larger size and longer term are required to confirm these claims. The cardiovascular benefits of the therapy are derived from the multiple pharmacological activities associated with guggul or guggulsterone, notably its hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and antiinflammatory activities. It has been established that guggulsterone is an antagonist at farnesoid x receptor (FXR), a key transcriptional regulator for the maintenance of cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis. The FXR antagonism by guggulsterone has been proposed as a mechanism for its hypolipidemic effect. A recent study demonstrates that guggulsterone upregulates the bile salt export pump (BSEP), an efflux transporter responsible for removal of cholesterol metabolites, bile acids from the liver. Such upregulation of BSEP expression by guggulsterone favors cholesterol metabolism into bile acids, and thus represents another possible mechanism for its hypolipidemic activity. Guggulsterone has been found to potently inhibit the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), a critical regulator of inflammatory responses. Such repression of NF-kappaB activation by guggulsterone has been proposed as a mechanism of the antiinflammatory effect of guggulsterone.
PMID: 18078436 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Singh BB, Vinjamury SP, Der-Martirosian C, Kubik E, Mishra LC, Shepard NP, Singh VJ, Meier M, Madhu SG.
BACKGROUND: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both developing and developed countries. An underlying cause of IHD involves retention and deposit of serum lipids in coronary arteries, decreasing blood flow. Drugs (conventional and herbal) are used to lower levels of serum cholesterol to help prevent IHD. The Ayurvedic medicine pharmacopoeia identified herbs that might contribute to a decrease in cholesterol and therefore reduce the risk of IHD. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted at 3 points: 2003, 2004, and 2007. Databases searched included PubMed, the National Library of Medicine, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ovid, and EBSCO Information Services, and other search strategies also were used. Each article was assessed for quality by 3 people, and discrepancies were resolved by arbitration using a fourth person, who also read and scored each article. Additional assessments of safety using a scale and determination of reported efficacy/effectiveness of the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-experimental designs (QEDs) were made. RESULTS: RCTs generally received high quality scores and improved by decade of publication. More than 50% of garlic, more than 80% of guggul, and 100% of Arjuna RCTs reported product effectiveness. Safety scores did not improve by decade. The QEDs received medium and high quality scores, and 93% of them reported effectiveness. The QEDs had a higher mean score for safety reporting than the RCTs. CONCLUSIONS: Many studies received high quality scores and noted safety information and reported effectiveness or efficacy in a clear manner. This finding was not consistent with other systematic reviews that have found the highest reported efficacy/ effectiveness in studies of poorer quality. Ayurvedic herbs reviewed here should be considered by physicians when trying to manage hyperlipidemia in their patients.
PMID: 17658119 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA.
Mono- and biphasic kinetic effects of bile salts on the pancreatic IB phospholipase A2 (PLA2) catalyzed interfacial hydrolysis are characterized. This novel phenomenon is modeled as allosteric action of bile salts with PLA2 at the interface. The results and controls also show that these kinetic effects are not due to surface dilution or solubilization or disruption of the bilayer interface where in the mixed-micelles substrate replenishment becomes the rate-limiting step. The PLA2-catalyzed rate of hydrolysis of zwitterionic dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) vesicles depends on the concentration and structure of the bile salt. The sigmoidal rate increase with cholate saturates at 0.06 mole fraction and changes little at the higher mole fractions. Also, with the rate-lowering bile salts (B), such as taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDOC), the initial sigmoidal rate increase at lower mole fraction is followed by nearly complete reversal to the rate at the pre-activation level at higher mole fractions. The rate-lowering effect of TCDOC is not observed with the (62-66)-loop deleted DeltaPLA2, or with the Naja venom PLA2 that is evolutionarily devoid of the loop. The rate increase is modeled with the assumption that the binding of PLA2 to DMPC interface is cooperatively promoted by bile salt followed by allosteric k(cat)(*)-activation of the bound enzyme by the anionic interface. The rate-lowering effect of bile salts is attributed to the formation of a specific catalytically inert E(*)B complex in the interface, which is noticeably different than the 1:1 EB complex in the aqueous phase. The cholate-activated rate of hydrolysis is lowered by hypolidemic ezetimibe and guggul extract which are not interfacial competitive inhibitors of PLA2. We propose that the biphasic modulation of the pancreatic PLA2 activity by bile salts regulates gastrointestinal fat metabolism and cholesterol homeostasis.
PMID: 17603006 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Division of Pharmacology, Central Drug Research Institute, Lucknow 226001, India.
Gugulipid, an ethyl acetate extract of the resin of plant Commiphora whighitii is an established hypolipidemic agent in clinical practice. The major constituent of gugulipid is guggulsterone [4, 17 (20)-pregnadiene-3, 16-dione]. It has been observed recently that patients receiving lipid-lowering drugs like statins have a reduced risk of dementia. Therefore, the present study was planned to explore the potential of gugulipid as cognitive enhancer. Gugulipid (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) showed dose dependent improvement in scopolamine-induced deficits in passive avoidance test. The maximal effective dose of gugulipid i.e. 50 mg/kg, p.o. was used for further studies on streptozotocin (STZ) model of dementia in mice. Gugulipid was investigated for its effect on learning and memory, parameters of oxidative stress (GSH and MDA) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the STZ (ic)-treated mice. Intracerebral (ic) injections of STZ (0.5 mg/kg) on 1st and 3rd day caused significant deficit in memory in passive avoidance and Morris water maze test after the 14th day of first dose. In passive avoidance, transfer latency time (TLT) was not increased on retention trials in STZ (ic) group while gugulipid treatment resulted in significant increase in TLT on retention trials in STZ (ic)-treated mice. In Morris water maze test the latency time to reach platform in STZ (ic)-treated mice was significantly higher than control and vehicle (artificial CSF). Pre-treatment of gugulipid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for 14 days started with the first dose of STZ (ic), significantly prevented STZ (ic)-induced memory deficit. Post-treatment i.e. after 14 days of first dose of STZ (ic) of gugulipid (50 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly decreased the latency time indicating anti-dementia activity. Effect of gugulipid and STZ in visible platform test was similar to those seen with hidden platform. Gugulipid and STZ-treated mice did not cause significant change in locomotor activity. Furthermore, STZ (ic) resulted into increase in AChE activity, low level of GSH and high concentration of MDA in brain on 21st day as compared to control. Gugulipid treatment caused significant decrease in AChE activity, low level of MDA and high concentration of GSH in brain following STZ (ic) as compared to vehicle administration in STZ (ic)-treated mice. The study demonstrated that gugulipid has significant protective affect against streptozotocin-induced memory deficits model of dementia that can be attributed to anti-oxidant and anti-AChE activity of gugulipid. These observations suggest gugulipid as a potential anti-dementia drug (CDRI, Lucknow has obtained US patent No. 6896901 for use of gugulipid as cognitive enhancer).
PMID: 17477963 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Division of Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Arthritis, an inflammation of the joints, is usually a chronic disease that results from dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-1beta) and pro-inflammatory enzymes that mediate the production of prostaglandins (e.g. cyclooxygenase-2) and leukotrienes (e.g. lipooxygenase), together with the expression of adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases, and hyperproliferation of synovial fibroblasts. All of these factors are regulated by the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB. Thus, agents that suppress the expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, cyclooxygenase-2, lipooxygenase, matrix metalloproteinases or adhesion molecules, or suppress the activation of NF-kappaB, all have potential for the treatment of arthritis. Numerous agents derived from plants can suppress these cell signaling intermediates, including curcumin (from turmeric), resveratrol (red grapes, cranberries and peanuts), tea polyphenols, genistein (soy), quercetin (onions), silymarin (artichoke), guggulsterone (guggul), boswellic acid (salai guggul) and withanolides (ashwagandha). Indeed, several preclinical and clinical studies suggest that these agents have potential for arthritis treatment. Although gold compounds are no longer employed for the treatment of arthritis, the large number of inexpensive natural products that can modulate inflammatory responses, but lack side effects, constitute 'goldmines' for the treatment of arthritis.
PMID: 17475558 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Laboratory of Bio-Molecular Technology, Department of Botany, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur, India.
Cell suspension cultures of Commiphora wightii, grown in modified MS medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (0.5 mg l(-1)) and kinetin (0.25 mg l(-1)), produced approximately 5 microg guggulsterone g(-1) dry wt. In a 2 l stirred tank bioreactor, the biomass was 5.5 g l(-1) and total guggulsterone was 36 microg l(-1).
PMID: 17354018 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Pharmacy, Kaiser Permanente of Colorado, Aurora, CO 80011-9045, USA.
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on select alternative therapies for the management of dyslipidemia. DATA SOURCES: Searches of MEDLINE and PubMed (1965-March 2006) were conducted using the key terms omega-3-fatty acids, policosanol, plant stanols and sterols, flaxseed, red yeast rice, guggulipid, garlic, fiber, almonds, and cholesterol and/or lipids. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Meta-analyses, published in English and involving adults, that incorporated randomized, controlled trials on alternative therapies for dyslipidemia were reviewed. Additionally, trials published subsequent to the meta-analyses were reviewed. Articles deemed relevant were included in this review. DATA SYNTHESIS: Of the aforementioned alternative therapies, randomized controlled trials were found for omega-3-fatty acids, policosanol, plant stanols and sterols, flaxseed, red yeast rice, guggulipid, garlic, fiber, almonds, and soy. Studies for each of these agents report varying degrees of lipid reduction. Based on published data, effective therapeutic options for lipid-lowering include intake of fiber, intake of plant stanols/sterols, replacement of animal protein with soy protein, and substitution of foods high in saturated fat with those with monounsaturated fatty acids (eg, dry roasted almonds). Adding omega-3-fatty acids is effective for reducing triglycerides in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Well-designed studies with long-term outcome data are necessary to further define the role for guggul, red yeast rice, policosanol, garlic, and flaxseed in the management of dyslipidemia. CONCLUSIONS: Alternative therapeutic approaches with complementary therapies are becoming increasingly popular among patients. It is important for healthcare providers to be familiar with the safety and efficacy of these agents to facilitate optimal outcomes for patients with dyslipidemia.
PMID: 17047144 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581, Kerala, India. email@example.com
The lipid lowering action of S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide (SMCS) isolated from Allium cepa Linn (family: Liliaceae) was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats fed on 1% cholesterol diet, in comparison to the hypolipidemic drug gugulipid. Administration of SMCS at a dose of 200mg/kg body weight for 45 days ameliorated the hyperlipidemic condition. The lipid profile in serum and tissues showed that concentrations of cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipids were significantly reduced when compared to their untreated counterparts. The total lipoprotein lipase activity in the adipose tissue was decreased with also a decrease in the free fatty acid levels in serum and tissues. The activities of the lipogenic enzymes glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme as also of HMG CoA reductase in the tissues remained low on treatment indicating that both the drugs did not favor lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis in the hyperlipidemic animals. The fecal excretion of bile acids and sterols was further increased upon treatment with the drugs. The results are directive to that both gugulipid and SMCS cause reduction of endogenous lipogenesis, increase catabolism of lipids and subsequent excretion of metabolic by-products through the intestinal tract. However, gugulipid is a better drug than SMCS at a low dose of 50mg/kg body weight.
PMID: 16987625 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental Therapeutics, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Bone resorption is commonly associated with aging and with certain types of cancer, including multiple myeloma and breast cancer. What induces bone resorption is not fully understood, but the role of osteoclasts is well established. Recently, receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, was implicated as a major mediator of bone resorption, suggesting that agents that can suppress RANKL signaling have the potential to inhibit bone resorption or osteoclastogenesis. Guggulsterone [4,17(20)-pregnadiene-3,16-dione], isolated from the guggul tree Commiphora mukul and used to treat osteoarthritis and bone fractures, was recently shown to antagonize the farnesoid X receptor, decrease the expression of bile acid-activated genes, and suppress the NF-kappaB activation induced by various carcinogens. We investigated whether guggulsterone could modulate RANKL signaling and osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL or tumor cells. We found that treatment of monocytes with guggulsterone suppressed RANKL-activated NF-kappaB activation (as indicated by gel-shift assay) and that this suppression correlated with inhibition of IkappaBalpha kinase and phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha, an inhibitor of NF-kappaB. Guggulsterone also suppressed the differentiation of monocytes to osteoclasts in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Suppression of osteoclastogenesis by the NF-kappaB-specific inhibitory peptide implies a link between NF-kappaB and osteoclastogenesis. Finally, differentiation to osteoclasts induced by coincubating human breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-468) or human multiple myeloma (U266) cells with monocytes was also completely suppressed by guggulsterone. Collectively, our results indicate that guggulsterone suppresses RANKL and tumor cell-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the activation of NF-kappaB.
PMID: 16428513 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Massachusetts General Hospital, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the scientific evidence on guggul for hyperlipidemia including expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology, and dosing. METHODS: Electronic searches were conducted in nine databases, 20 additional journals (not indexed in common databases), and bibliographies from 50 selected secondary references. No restrictions were placed on language or quality of publications. All literature collected pertained to efficacy in humans, dosing, precautions, adverse effects, use in pregnancy/lactation, interactions, alteration of laboratory assays, and mechanism of action. Standardized inclusion/exclusion criteria were utilized for selection. RESULTS: Before 2003, most scientific evidence suggested that guggulipid elicits significant reductions in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides, as well as elevations in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) [Kotiyal JP, Bisht DB, Singh DS. Double blind cross-over trial of gum guggulu (Commiphora mukul) Fraction A in hypercholesterolemia. J Res Indian Med Yoga Hom 1979;14(2):11-6; Kotiyal JP, Singh DS, Bisht DB. Gum guggulu (Commiphora mukul) fraction 'A' in obesity-a double-blind clinical trial. J Res Ayur Siddha 1985;6(1, 3, 4):20-35; Gaur SP, Garg RK, Kar AM, et al. Gugulipid, a new hypolipidaemic agent, in patients of acute ischaemic stroke: effect on clinical outcome, platelet function and serum lipids. Asia Pacif J Pharm 1997;12:65-9; Urizar NL, Liverman AB, Dodds DT, et al. A natural product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for the FXR. Science 3 May 2002 [Science Express Reports]; Nityanand S, Srivastava JS, Asthana OP. Clinical trials with gugulipid. A new hypolipidaemic agent. J Assoc Physicians India 1989;37(5):323-8; Kuppurajan K, Rajagopalan SS, Rao TK, et al. Effect of guggulu (Commiphora mukul-Engl.) on serum lipids in obese, hypercholesterolemic and hyperlipemic cases. J Assoc Physicians India 1978;26(5):367-73; Gopal K, Saran RK, Nityanand S, et al. Clinical trial of ethyl acetate extract of gum gugulu (gugulipid) in primary hyperlipidemia. J Assoc Physicians India 1986;34(4):249-51; Agarwal RC, Singh SP, Saran RK, et al. Clinical trial of gugulipid-a new hypolipidemic agent of plant origin in primary hyperlipidemia. Indian J Med Res 1986;84:626-34; Verma SK, Bordia A. Effect of Commiphora mukul (gum guggulu) in patients of hyperlipidemia with special reference to HDL-cholesterol. Indian J Med Res 1988;87:356-60; Singh RB, Niaz MA, Ghosh S. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Commiphora mukul as an adjunct to dietary therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1994;8(4):659-64; Ghorai M, Mandal SC, Pal M, et al. A comparative study on hypocholesterolaemic effect of allicin, whole germinated seeds of bengal gram and guggulipid of gum gugglu. Phytother Res 2000;14(3):200-02]. However, most published studies were small and methodologically flawed. In August 2003, a well-designed trial reported small significant increases in serum LDL levels associated with the use of guggul compared to placebo [Szapary PO, Wolfe ML, Bloedon LT, et al. Guggulipid for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290(6):765-72]. No significant changes in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or triglycerides were measured. These results are consistent with two prior published case reports [Das Gupta R. Gugulipid: pro-lipaemic effect. J Assoc Physicians India 1990;38(12):346]. CONCLUSION: The effects of guggulipid in patients with high cholesterol are not clear, with some studies finding cholesterol-lowering effects, and other research suggesting no benefits. At this time, there is not enough scientific evidence to support the use of guggul for any medical condition. Guggul may cause stomach discomfort or allergic rash as well as other serious side effects and interactions. It should be avoided in pregnant or breast-feeding women and in children. Safety of use beyond 4 months has not been well studied.
PMID: 16338199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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